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 投稿者:杉本  投稿日:2018年12月23日(日)12時38分7秒
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  process and recovery process
  1st working process

①<192> The use of labor is the labor itself. The buyer of the labor consumes it by having their salesman work. As a result, the latter becomes an actuarial worker, a worker, which in the past was only potentia. In order to present his work in commodities, he must first of all present them in utility values, things that serve to satisfy needs of some sort. It is therefore a particular second-hand value, a definite article, which the capitalist makes by the worker. The production of commodities or commodities does not change their general nature by acting for and under the control of the capitalist.

The work process is therefore initially independent of any particular social form.

<The work process is therefore initially independent of any particular social form.>

②-①The work is first of all a process between man and nature, a process in which man mediates, regulates and controls his metabolism with nature through his own act. He opposes the natural substance itself as a natural power. He sets in motion the natural forces belonging to his body, arms and legs, head and hand, in order to acquire the natural substance in a form suitable for his own life. By acting on nature outside of him and changing it, he changes his own nature. He develops the potencies dormant in her, and subjects the play of her powers to his own submissiveness.

②-②We are not dealing here with the first animal-like instinctual forms of work.

②-③The condition in which the worker acts as a seller of his own labor power in the commodity market is, in a primeval background, removed from the state in which human labor had not yet shed its first instinctual form.

②-④We assume work in a form in which it belongs exclusively to man. A spider performs operations similar to those of the weaver, and a bee shames some human builders by building its wax cells. But what distinguishes the worst architect from the outset in front of the best bee is that he built the cell in his head before building it in wax.

②-⑤At the end of the work process, a result emerges which, at the beginning of it, already existed in the idea of the worker, that is to say already ideationally. Not that it only causes a change of form of the natural; he realizes in the natural at the same time his purpose, which he knows, who determines the manner of his action as law and to whom he must subordinate his will.

②-⑥And this subordination is not an isolated act. Apart from the effort of the organs which work, the purposeful will, which expresses itself as attention, is required for the whole duration of the work, and the more so, the less it is due to its own content and the The manner in which they are performed carries the worker with him, the less he enjoys them as a play of his own physical and mental powers.

③The simple moments of the working process are the purposeful activity or work itself, its object and its means.

④-①The earth (including, economically, the water), as it originally provided man with provisions and finished food (1), is found without his intervention as the general object of human labor. All things which detach work only from their immediate connection with the whole, are naturally found objects of work.

④-②So the fish that is caught by his life element, the water, is separated, the wood that fell in the jungle, the ore that is broken loose from its vein. On the other hand, if the object of work itself has been filtered through previous work, so to speak, we call it raw material. For example, the ore that has already broken off, which is now washed out. All raw material is a work item, but not every work item is raw material. Raw material is the work item only as soon as it has already undergone a work-related change.

⑤The means of work is a thing or a complex of things that the worker pushes between himself and the object of work, and that serve him as the head of his activity upon this object. He uses the mechanical, physical, chemical properties of things in order to make them act as a means of power on other things, according to his purpose.

 (2) The object which the worker immediately seizes - apart from the seizure of finished food, the fruit For example, where his own body organs alone serve as means of work - is not the work object, but the means of work. Thus the natural itself becomes the organ of its activity, an organ which it adds to its own bodily organs, prolonging its natural form, in spite of the Bible. Like Earth, its original supply chamber, it is its original arsenal of work equipment. It provides him with e.g. The stone with which it casts, rubs, pushes, cuts, etc. The earth itself is a means of work, but again presupposes a whole range of other means of work and a relatively high development of labor for its service as a means of working in agriculture.

 (3) As soon as the work process is at all reasonably developed, it needs already processed work equipment. In the oldest human caves we find stone tools and stone weapons. In addition to processed stone, wood, bones and shells, in the beginning of human history, the domesticated animal, which is itself already modified by work, plays the main role as a means of working.

 (4) The use and creation of working materials, although already inherent in certain species of animals, characterize the specifically human work process, and Franklin therefore defines man as a "toolmaking animal", a tool-making animal. The same importance which the construction of bony relics has for the knowledge of the organization of submerged animal families, has relics of work equipment for the evaluation of submerged economic social formations. Not what is done, but how one makes use of the means of labor, distinguishes the economic epochs.

 (5) The means of labor are not only indicators of the development of the human labor force, but also indicators of the social conditions in which work is carried out. Among the means of work itself, the mechanical means of work, the totality of which may be called the bone and muscle system of production, offer much more decisive characteristics of a social epoch of production than those means of work which serve only containers of the object of work, and whose totality is generally referred to as the vascular system of production can be, such as Tubes, barrels, baskets, jugs, etc. Only in chemical manufacturing do they play a significant role. (5a)
(5)労働手段は、人間の労働力の発達の指標だけでなく、労働が行われる社会的状況の指標でもある。仕事の手段自体の中では、全体として骨と筋肉の生産システムと呼ばれることがある機械的な仕事の手段は、生産の社会的時代のはるかに決定的な特徴を提供します。作業の対象であり、その全体が一般に血管生産システムと呼ばれるものは、例えば、チューブ、バレル、バスケット、ジャグなどであり得る。それらは化学製造においてのみ重要な役割を果たす。 (5a)

⑥In a broader sense, the working process among its means, besides the things which mediate the effect of labor upon its object, and therefore serve, in one way or another, as leaders of activity, counts all objective conditions which are at all necessary for the trial to take place. They do not go directly into him, but he can not do it without them or only imperfectly. The general working means of this kind is again the earth itself, for it gives the worker the locus standi and his process the field of employment. Work equipment of this kind already mediated by the work is e.g. Work buildings, canals, roads, etc.

⑦ In the working process, therefore, the activity of man through the means of work brings about a change of the object of work intended from the outset. The process goes out in the product. Its product is a use-value, a natural substance appropriated by changing the shape of human needs. The work has been linked to its object. It is objectified, and the object is processed. What appeared on the part of the worker in the form of restlessness now appears as a quiescent property, in the form of being, on the side of the product. He spun, and the product is a web.
⑦したがって、作業過程では、作業手段を通じた人間の活動は、当初から意図されていた作業対象の変更をもたらします。プロセスは製品の中で消えます。その製品は、使用価値、人間のニーズの形を変えることによって割り当てられる天然物質です。その作品はその目的にリンクされています。客観化され、オブジェクトが処理されます。<The work has been linked to its object.> 落ち着きのなさの形で労働者の側に現れたものは、今や製品の側にあるという形で、静止した財産として現れます。彼はスピンし、その製品はWebです。

<196>⑧ Looking at the whole process from the standpoint of its result, the product, both appear to work equipment and subject, as means of production (6) and the work itself as a productive work (7) ,

⑨When a use-value comes out of the working process as a product, other use-values, products of former labor-processes, enter into it as means of production. The same use-value, the product of this, forms the means of production of that labor. Products are therefore not only a result, but also a condition of the work process.

⑩With the exception of the extractive industry, which finds its object of work by nature, such as mining, hunting, fishing, etc. (agriculture only in so far as it breaks the virgin earth itself in the first instance), treat all branches of an object, the raw material, ie already by the work filtered work item, itself is already working product. For example, the seed in agriculture. Animals and plants that are considered to be natural products are not only products of perhaps the work of last year, but, in their present forms, products of a transformation continued by many generations under human control, by means of human labor. But as far as the means of work are concerned, their immense majority shows to the most superficial view the trace of past labor.

⑪The raw material may form the main substance of a product or may be included only as an adjuvant in its formation. The adjuvant is consumed by the working medium, such as coal from the steam engine, oil from the wheel, hay from the draft horse, or added to the raw material to cause a material change, such as chlorine to unbleached canvas, coal to iron, color to wool, or he supports the work itself, such as related materials for the lighting and heating of the workplace. The difference between the main substance and the excipient blurs in the actual chemical production, because none of the raw materials used reappear as the substance of the product.(8th)
⑪原材料は、製品の主要物質を形成してもよく、またはその形成において補助剤としてのみ含まれてもよい。補助剤は、蒸気エンジンからの石炭、車輪からの油、ドラフト馬からの干し草などの作業媒体によって消費されるか、原材料に添加されて塩素から未漂白キャンバスへ、石炭から鉄へと材料の変化を引き起こす。 、羊毛の色、または職場の照明や暖房のための関連資料など、作品自体を支えます。主原料と賦形剤の違いは、実際の化学品製造においては使用される原材料のどれも製品の原料として再出現しないため、ぼやけます。

<197> ⑫Since every thing possesses many properties and is therefore capable of different uses, the same product can form the raw material of very different working processes. Grain, for example, is raw material for millers, starch manufacturers, distillers, ranchers, etc. It becomes the raw material of its own production as a seed. Thus, coal emerges as a product of the mining industry and as a means of production into it.

⑬The same product may serve as work equipment and raw material in the same work process. At the livestock, for example, where the livestock, the processed raw material, is at the same time a means of fertilizer production.

⑭A product that exists in a form ready for consumption can once again become the raw material of another product, like the grape becomes the raw material of the wine. Or the work releases its product into forms in which it is only usable again as raw material. Raw material in this state means semi-finished product and would be better known as stage product, such as cotton, thread, yarn, etc. Although already a product, the original raw material may have to go through a whole series of different processes, in which it always works as a raw material in ever changing shape until the last working process, which repels it as a finished food or finished work equipment.

⑮ One sees: Whether a utility value appears as raw material, means of work or product depends entirely on its particular function in the working process, on the place which it occupies in it, and with the change of this place these determinations change.

⑯生産手段としての新しい作業工程への参入の結果として、製品はそれゆえ製品の特徴を失う。それらは生活仕事の客観的要因としてのみ機能する。スピナーはスピンドルをあくまで手段として扱いますが、それをもって亜麻は彼が回転させる対象としてのみ扱います。ただし、素材とスピンドルを回転させずにスピンすることはできません。これらの製品の存在<4。したがって、この製品のエディションは紡績の開始時に必要です。しかし、このプロセスでは、栄養の行為には無関係であり、パンはバウアー、ミュラー、ベイカーの過去の仕事の産物であり、逆もまた同様であるが、亜麻とスピンドルが過去の労働の産物であることも同様に無関係である。作業工程における生産手段が過去の労働の産物としての性格を主張しているのであれば、それらの欠陥によってもそうである。切れないナイフ、絶えず引き裂く糸などは、Cutler AとGarnwichser Eを鮮やかに思い出させます。成功した製品では、その機能的性質の調停は過去の研究によって消滅しました。
⑯As a result of their entry as a means of production into new work processes, products therefore lose the character of the product. They only function as objective factors of living work. The spinner treats the spindle only as a means, with which, the flax only as an object, which he spins. However, you can not spin without spinning material and spindle. The presence of these products <4. Edition of this product> is therefore required at the beginning of spinning. In this process, however, it is equally indifferent that flax and spindle are products of past labor, as it is indifferent in the act of nutrition, that bread is the product of the past work of Bauer, Müller, Baker, and vice versa. If means of production in the working process assert their character as products of past labor, so by their defects. A knife that does not cut, yarn that tears constantly, etc., reminds vividly of Cutler A and Garnwichser E. In the successful product, the mediation of its functional properties is extinguished by past work.

⑰<198> A machine that does not serve in the work process is useless. It also falls victim to the destructive power of natural metabolism. The iron rusted, the wood rots. Yarn that is not interwoven or knotted is spun cotton. Living labor must grasp these things, awaken them from the dead, transform them from possible into actual and effective use-values. Licked by the fire of labor, as bodies acquire it, their enthusiasm for their conceptual and professional functions in the process, they are also consumed, but expediently, as educational elements of new use-values, of new products that are capable of being consumed in individual consumption or food to enter into a new working process as a means of production.

If, therefore, existing products are not only results, but also conditions of existence of the working process, then their throwing into it, that is, their contact with living labor, is the only means of preserving and realizing these products of past labor as utility values.

⑲ Work consumes and consumes its material elements, its object and its means, and is therefore the process of consumption. This productive consumption differs from individual consumption in that the latter consumes the products as food of the living individual, the former as products of labor, of his working labor. The product of individual consumption is therefore the consumer, and the result of productive consumption is a product different from the consumer.
⑲ 仕事はその物質的な要素、その目的そしてその手段を消費しそして消費し、そしてそれ故に消費の過程である。この生産的な消費は個人の消費とは異なり、後者は製品を生きている個人の食料として、前者は労働の産物として、彼の労働労働のうちに消費します。したがって、個人消費の製品は消費者であり、生産的消費の結果は消費者とは異なる製品です。

⑳ If their means and their subject matter are themselves products, the work consumes products to create products, or uses products as a means of production of products. But as the working process initially proceeds only between man and the earth existing without his intervention, such means of production, which exist naturally, do not serve any combination of natural substance and human labor.

21-①The working process, as we have shown it in its simple and abstract moments, is purposeful activity for the production of utility values, appropriation of the natural for human needs, general condition of the metabolism between man and nature, eternal natural condition of human life and therefore independent of any form this life, but rather all its social forms in common. We therefore had no need to portray the worker in relation to other workers.

21-②The man and his work on the  sufficient one, nature and its materials on the other side. As little as one tastes the wheat, who built it, so little does one look at this process under which conditions it proceeds, whether under the brutal whip of the slave-overseer or under the anxious eye of the capitalist, whether Cincinnatus does it in the order of his few jugera <morning> or the savage who kills a beast with a stone.(9)

22-① Let us return to our capitalist in spe. After having bought on the commodity market all the factors necessary for a working process, we abandoned him, the figurative factors or the means of production, the personal factor or the worker. With a clever connoisseur's eye, he has selected the appropriate means of production and manpower for his particular business, spinning, boot making, etc. Our capitalist therefore begins to consume the commodity he has bought, the labor-power, that is, he lets the bearer of labor, the laborer, consume the means of production through his labor.

22-② Of course, the general nature of the work process does not change as the worker does it for the capitalist, rather than for himself. But even the specific way in which one makes boots or spins yarn can not change at first through the intervention of the capitalist. He must first take the manpower he finds on the market, including his labor, as it sprang from a period when there were no capitalists. The transformation of the mode of production itself through the subordination of labor to capital may occur later and must therefore be considered later.

23 The labor process, as it proceeds as the process of consuming the worker by the capitalist, now shows two peculiar phenomena.

24The worker works under the control of the capitalist to whom his work belongs. The capitalist fits that the work is neat and rapid installation means of production are advantageously used, so no <200> wasted raw materials and conserve the working instrument, that is only so far destroyed when ernötigt its use in the work.

25-①Secondly, the product is the property of the capitalist, not of the immediate producer, of the worker. The capitalist pays for example the daily value of the worker. Their use, like that of every other commodity, for example, a horse, which he rented for a day, therefore belongs to him for the day. The buyer of the goods owns the use of the goods, and the owner of the worker, in fact, only gives the use-value he has sold by giving his work. From the moment he entered the workshop of the capitalist, the utilitarian value of his labor power, that is, its use, labor, the capitalist, belonged.

25-②The capitalist, through the purchase of labor, incorporated labor itself as a living fermentation substance into the dead educational elements of the product which belonged to him as well. From his point of view the working process is only the consumption of the commodity he has bought, but he can only consume it by adding his means of production. The working process is a process between things the capitalist has bought and things belonging to him. The product of this process belongs to him just as much as the product of the fermentation process in his cellar.(10)


Chapter 7: The Labour-Process and the Process
of Producing Surplus-Value
第7章労働過程とその過程 価値の創出
Section 1: The Labour-Process or the Production of Use-Values
①The capitalist buys labour-power in order to use it; and labour-power in use is labour itself.
The purchaser of labour-power consumes it by setting the seller of it to work. By working, the latter becomes actually, what before he only was potentially, labour-power in action, a labourer. In order that his labour may re-appear in a commodity, he must, before all things, expend it on something useful, on something capable of satisfying a want of some sort. Hence, what the capitalist sets the labourer to produce, is a particular use-value, a specified article.

The fact that the production of use-values, or goods, is carried on under the control of a capitalist and on his behalf, does not alter the general character of that production. We shall, therefore, in the first place, have to consider the labour-process independently of the particular form it assumes under given social conditions.

②Labour is, in the first place, a process in which both man and Nature participate, and in which man of his own accord starts, regulates, and controls the material re-actions between himself and Nature. He opposes himself to Nature as one of her own forces, setting in motion arms and legs,head and hands, the natural forces of his body, in order to appropriate Nature’s productions in a form adapted to his own wants. By thus acting on the external world and changing it, he at the same time changes his own nature.

②-②He develops his slumbering powers and compels them to act in obedience to his sway. We are not now dealing with those primitive instinctive forms of labour that remind us of the mere animal. An immeasurable interval of time separates the state of things in which a man brings his labour-power to market for sale as a commodity, from that state in which human labour was still in its first instinctive stage. We pre-suppose labour in a form that stamps it as exclusively human. A spider conducts operations that resemble those of a weaver,and a bee puts to shame many an architect in the construction of her cells. But what distinguishes the worst architect from the best of bees is this, that the architect raises his structure in imagination before he erects it in reality. At the end of every labour-process, we get a result that already existed in the imagination of the labourer at its commencement.

②-③He not only effects a change of form in the material on which he works, but he also realises a purpose of his own that gives the law to his modus operandi, and to which he must subordinate his will.
And this subordination is no mere momentary act. Besides the exertion of the bodily organs, the process demands that, during the whole operation, the workman’s will be steadily in consonance with his purpose. This means close attention. The less he is attracted by the nature of the work, and the mode in which it is carried on, and the less, therefore, he enjoys it as something which gives play to his bodily and mental powers, the more close his attention is forced to be.

③The elementary factors of the labour-process are 1,
the personal activity of man, i.e., work itself,
2, the subject of that work, and 3, its instruments.

④The soil (and this, economically speaking, includes water) in the virgin state in which it supplies 1 man with necessaries or the means of subsistence ready to hand, exists independently of him, and is the universal subject of human labour. All those things which labour merely separates from immediate connexion with their environment, are subjects of labour spontaneously provided by Nature. Such are fish which we catch and take from their element, water, timber which we fell in the virgin forest, and ores which we extract from their veins. If, on the other hand, the subject of labour has, so to say, been filtered through previous labour, we call it raw material; such is orealready extracted and ready for washing. All raw material is the subject of labour, but not every
subject of labour is raw material: it can only become so, after it has undergone some alteration by means of labour.

⑤An instrument of labour is a thing, or a complex of things, which the labourer interposes between himself and the subject of his labour, and which serves as the conductor of his activity. He makes use of the mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of some substances in order to make other substances subservient to his aims.2

⑤-②Leaving out of consideration such ready-made means of subsistence as fruits, in gathering which a man’s own limbs serve as the instruments of his labour, the first thing of which the labourer possesses himself is not the subject of labour but its instrument. Thus Nature becomes one of the organs of his activity, one that he annexes to his own bodily organs, adding stature to himself in spite of the Bible.

⑤-③As the earth is his original larder, so too it is his original tool house. It supplies him, for instance, with stones for throwing, grinding, pressing, cutting, &c. The earth itself is an instrument of labour, but when used as such in agriculture implies a whole series of other instruments and a comparatively high development of labour.3

⑤-④No sooner does labour undergo the least development, than it requires specially prepared instruments. Thus in the oldest caves we find stone implements and weapons. In the earliest period of human history domesticated animals, i.e., animals which have been bred for the purpose, and have undergone modifications by means of labour, play the chief part as instruments of labour along with specially prepared stones, wood, bones, and shells.4

⑤-⑤分娩器具の使用と製造は、ある種の動物の中では生殖細胞に存在していますが、特に人間の分娩過程の特徴であり、それゆえフランクリンは人間を道具作りの動物と定義しています。消滅した労働機器の遺物は、絶滅した動物の種を決定するための化石骨がそうであるように、社会の絶滅した経済形態の調査にとって同じ重要性を持っています。それは、作られた記事ではなく、それらがどのように作られ、そしてどのような道具によって作られたのかによって、私たちは異なる経済的時代を区別することができます。 5
⑤-⑤The use and fabrication of instruments of labour, although existing in the germ among certain species of animals, is specifically characteristic of the human labour-process, and Franklin therefore defines man as a tool-making animal. Relics of bygone instruments of labour possess the same importance for the investigation of extinct economic forms of society, as do fossil bones for the determination of extinct species of animals. It is not the articles made, but how they are made, and by what instruments, that enables us to distinguish different economic epochs. 5

⑤-⑥Instruments of labour not only supply a standard of the degree of development to which human labour has attained, but they are also indicators of the social conditions under which that labour is carried on.

⑤-⑦Among the instruments of labour, those of a mechanical nature, which, taken as a whole, we may call the bone and muscles of production, offer much more decided characteristics of a given epoch of production, than those which, like pipes, tubs, baskets, jars, &c., serve only to hold the materials for labour, which latter class, we may in a general way, call the vascular system of production.

⑤-⑧The latter first begins to play an important part in the chemical industries.In a wider sense we may include among the instruments of labour, in addition to those things that are used for directly transferring labour to its subject, and which therefore, in one way or another,serve as conductors of activity, all such objects as are necessary for carrying on the labourprocess.

⑥These do not enter directly into the process, but without them it is either impossible for it to take place at all, or possible only to a partial extent. Once more we find the earth to be a universal instrument of this sort, for it furnishes a locus standi to the labourer and a field of employment for his activity. Among instruments that are the result of previous labour and also belong to this class, we find workshops, canals, roads, and so forth.

⑦In the labour-process, therefore, man’s activity, with the help of the instruments of labour, effects an alteration, designed from the commencement, in the material worked upon. The process disappears in the product, the latter is a use-value, Nature’s material adapted by a change of form to the wants of man. Labour has incorporated itself with its subject: the former is materialised, the latter transformed. That which in the labourer appeared as movement, now appears in the product as a fixed quality without motion. The blacksmith forges and the product is a forging.

⑧If we examine the whole process from the point of view of its result, the product, it is plain that both the instruments and the subject of labour, are means of production,6 and that the labour itselfis productive labour.7

Though a use-value, in the form of a product, issues from the labour-process, yet other usevalues,products of previous labour, enter into it as means of production. The same use-value is both the product of a previous process, and a means of production in a later process. Products are therefore not only results, but also essential conditions of labour.

With the exception of the extractive industries, in which the material for labour is provided immediately by Nature, such as mining, hunting, fishing, and agriculture (so far as the latter is confined to breaking up virgin soil), all branches of industry manipulate raw material, objects already filtered through labour, already products of labour. Such is seed in agriculture.

Animals and plants, which we are accustomed to consider as products of Nature, are in their present form,not only products of, say last year’s labour, but the result of a gradual transformation, continued through many generations, under man’s superintendence, and by means of his labour. But in the
great majority of cases, instruments of labour show even to the most superficial observer, traces of the labour of past ages.

Raw material may either form the principal substance of a product, or it may enter into its formation only as an accessory. An accessory may be consumed by the instruments of labour, as coal under a boiler, oil by a wheel, hay by draft-horses, or it may be mixed with the raw material in order to produce some modification thereof, as chlorine into unbleached linen, coal with iron,dye-stuff with wool, or again, it may help to carry on the work itself, as in the case of the
materials used for heating and lighting workshops.

The distinction between principal substance and accessory vanishes in the true chemical industries, because there none of the raw material reappears,in its original composition, in the substance of the product.8

Every object possesses various properties, and is thus capable of being applied to different uses.

One and the same product may therefore serve as raw material in very different processes. Corn,for example, is a raw material for millers, starch-manufacturers, distillers, and cattlebreeders.
It also enters as raw material into its own production in the shape of seed; coal, too, is at the same
time the product of, and a means of production in, coal-mining.

Again, a particular product may be used in one and the same process, both as an instrument of labour and as raw material. Take, for instance, the fattening of cattle, where the animal is the raw material, and at the same time an instrument for the production of manure.

A product, though ready for immediate consumption, may yet serve as raw material for a further product, as grapes when they become the raw material for wine. On the other hand, labour may give us its product in such a form, that we can use it only as raw material, as is the case with cotton, thread, and yarn. Such a raw material, though itself a product, may have to go through a whole series of different processes: in each of these in turn, it serves, with constantly varying form, as raw material, until the last process of the series leaves it a perfect product, ready for individual consumption, or for use as an instrument of labour.

Hence we see, that whether a use-value is to be regarded as raw material, as instrument of labour,or as product, this is determined entirely by its function in the labour-process, by the position it there occupies: as this varies, so does its character.

Whenever therefore a product enters as a means of production into a new labour-process, it thereby loses its character of product, and becomes a mere factor in the process.

A spinner treats spindles only as implements for spinning, and flax only as the material that he spins. Of course it is impossible to spin without material and spindles; and therefore the existence of these things as products, at the commencement of the spinning operation, must be presumed: but in the process itself, the fact that they are products of previous labour, is a matter of utter indifference; just as in
the digestive process, it is of no importance whatever, that bread is the produce of the previous labour of the farmer, the miller, and the baker.

On the contrary, it is generally by their imperfections as products, that the means of production in any process assert themselves in their character of products. A blunt knife or weak thread forcibly remind us of Mr. A., the cutler, or Mr. B., the spinner. In the finished product the labour by means of which it has acquired its useful qualities is not palpable, has apparently vanished.

彼らの死 - 眠り、それらを単なる可能性のある使用価値から実際のそして効果的なものに変えます。
A machine which does not serve the purposes of labour, is useless. In addition, it falls a prey to the destructive influence of natural forces. Iron rusts and wood rots. Yarn with which we neither weave nor knit, is cotton wasted. Living labour must seize upon these things and rouse them from
their death-sleep, change them from mere possible use-values into real and effective ones.

Bathed in the fire of labour, appropriated as part and parcel of labour’s organism, and, as it were, made alive for the performance of their functions in the process, they are in truth consumed, but consumed with a purpose, as elementary constituents of new use-values, of new products, ever ready as means of subsistence for individual consumption, or as means of production for some new labour-process.

If then, on the one hand, finished products are not only results, but also necessary conditions, of the labour-process, on the other hand, their assumption into that process, their contact with living labour, is the sole means by which they can be made to retain their character of use-values, and be utilised.

Labour uses up its material factors, its subject and its instruments, consumes them, and is therefore a process of consumption. Such productive consumption is distinguished from individual consumption by this, that the latter uses up products, as means of subsistence for the living individual; the former, as means whereby alone, labour, the labour-power of the living individual, is enabled to act.

The product, therefore, of individual consumption, is the consumer himself; the result of productive consumption, is a product distinct from the consumer.

In so far then, as its instruments and subjects are themselves products, labour consumes products in order to create products, or in other words, consumes one set of products by turning them into means of production for another set. But, just as in the beginning, the only participators in the labour-process were man and the earth, which latter exists independently of man, so even now we still employ in the process many means of production, provided directly by Nature, that do not represent any combination of natural substances with human labour.

The labour-process, resolved as above into its simple elementary factors, is human action with a view to the production of use-values, appropriation of natural substances to human requirements;

it is the necessary condition for effecting exchange of matter between man and Nature; it is the everlasting Nature-imposed condition of human existence, and therefore is independent of every social phase of that existence, or rather, is common to every such phase. It was, therefore, not necessary to represent our labourer in connexion with other labourers; man and his labour on one side, Nature and its materials on the other, sufficed. As the taste of the porridge does not tell you who grew the oats, no more does this simple process tell you of itself what are the social conditions under which it is taking place, whether under the slave-owner’s brutal lash, or the anxious eye of the capitalist, whether Cincinnatus carries it on in tilling his modest farm or a savage in killing wild animals with stones.9

Let us now return to our would-be capitalist. We left him just after he had purchased, in the open market, all the necessary factors of the labour process; its objective factors, the means of production, as well as its subjective factor, labour-power. With the keen eye of an expert, he has selected the means of production and the kind of labour-power best adapted to his particular trade, be it spinning, bootmaking, or any other kind.

資本主義者が労働力を消費する過程に変わった労働過程は、二つの特徴的な現象を示す。第一に、労働者は自分の労働が属する資本家の管理下で働いています。 資本主義者は、仕事が適切な方法で行われ、生産手段が賢く使用されるように細心の注意を払っているので、不要な原材料の浪費や、仕事で必然的に引き起こされる以上の道具の消耗はありません。



彼の見地からすると、労働過程は購入した商品の消費に他ならない。 e  - 労働力のしかし、この消費は、労働力に生産手段を供給すること以外にはもたらされ得ない。労働過程は、資本家が購入したものと彼の財産になったものとの間のプロセスです。それゆえに、このプロセスの産物は彼のもので、彼の地下室で完成した発酵プロセスの産物であるワインと同じくらいにの--ものです。



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